Criticism Of Vroom%27s Expectancy Theory Of Motivation

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On the other hand vroom’s theory is difficult to apply in practice. Despite its difficulty in application, the logical accuracy of Vroom’s theory indicates that motivation is much more complex than the approaches of Maslow and Herzberg seem to imply. Expectancy theory (16/9) (or expectancy theory of motivation) proposes that an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over others due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. In essence, the motivation of the behavior selection is determined by the desirability of the outcome. Contrasting Maslow’s Theory of Needs with Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. As suggested by Victor Vroom and unlike Maslow’ theory, the expectancy theory of motivation does not focus on needs but concentrates in the results. When Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory concentrates on the association of internal needs of an individual and the expected effort needed to satisfy them such as time and money, Vroom puts apart effort (a result of motivation), performance, and results/outcome.

Analysis Of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. According to Vroom’s expectancy theory, there are four elements including valence, force, instrumentality, and expectancy. The mathematical equation is (M) = Instrumentality (I) x Expectancy (E) x Valence (V). The theory considers the value of an individual on the estimated outcome.

Running Head: Vroom’s Expectancy theory
Literature Review:
Vroom’s Expectancy theory
Literature review:
Pavel Smirnov
Vroom’s Expectancy theory
Word count:
Advanced Writing Skills, GEN 2133
Date 07.04.2013
Contents Literature Review: 0 Literature review: 0 Pavel Smirnov 0 Vroom’s Expectancy theory 0 Advanced Writing Skills, GEN 2133 0 1 Literature review 2 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Expectancy Theory 2 1.3 Conclusion 3 2 Reference List 5
Literature review
Introduction
The expectancy theory of motivation has become an increasingly popular model for predicting work performance and job preference. The empirical tests of this model have typically employed correlation analysis to
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J., Levine, M. S., Sumner, K. E., Knight, M. B., Arendt, L. A., & Johnson, V. A. 2009).
Reference List
Behling, O., & Starke, F. A. (1973). The Postulates of Expectancy Theory. Academy Of Management Journal, 16(3), 373-388.
Geiger, M. A., & Cooper, E. A. (1996). Using Expectancy Theory to Assess Student Motivation. Issues In Accounting Education, 11(1), 113-129.
Hollenback, J. (1979). A Matrix Method for Expectancy Research. Academy Of Management Review, 4(4), 579-587.
Oliver, R. L. (1974). Expectancy Theory Predictions of Salesmen's Performance. Journal Of Marketing Research (JMR), 11(3), 243-253.
Pousa, C., & Mathieu, A. (2010). Sales Managers' Motivation to Coach Salespeople: an exploration using expectancy theory. International Journal Of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 8(1), 34-50.
Radosevich, D. J., Levine, M. S., Sumner, K. E., Knight, M. B., Arendt, L. A., & Johnson, V. A. (2009). The role of expectancy theory in goal striving processes. Journal Of The Academy Of Business & Economics, 9(4), 186-192.
Reinharth, L., & Wahba, M. A. (1975). Expectancy Theory as a Predictor of Work Motivation, Effort Expenditure, and Job Performance. Academy Of Management Journal, 18(3), 520-537.
Renko, M., Kroeck, K. K., & Bullough, A. (2012). Expectancy theory and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 667-684.
Starke, F. A., & Behling, O. (1975). A Test of Two Postulates

Victor Vroom propounded a process theory namely Expectancy theory to explain motivation. The central concept of the Vroom Expectancy theory of motivation is that individual is motivated and the strength of his action depends on close association between his preference to a specific outcome and the actual outcome. The theory established relationship between effort, performance and rewards. According to expectancy theory, motivation is the result of the sum of the products of valence, instrumentality and expectancy. It can be stated in the form of the following mathematical formula.

Motivation = Σ( Valence X Instrumentality X Expectancy)

Relationship between Effort, Performance and Rewards

Criticism Of Vroom%27s Expectancy Theory Of Motivation
  • Effort-Performance Relationship: It is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort leads to performance.
  • Performance-Reward Relationship: This is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.
  • Rewards-Personal Goals Relationship: It is the degree to which organisational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individuals

Vroom Expectancy Theory: Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy

Vroom
  • Valence: Valence is the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. Every individual believes that his effort leads to certain definite outcome. This is expected utility or value. The greater the strength or the expectation of the outcome the greater would be the level of motivation. The valence can be positive or negative. It is positive when employee has a strong preference to reward. It will be zero if he is indifferent. Similarly, it will be negative if employee does not prefer to attain the outcome.
  • Instrumentality: Instrumentality refers to the strength of the belief about the certainty of outcome. Thus, it is the expression of probability between performance and reward. This varies between ± 1. The performance reward relationship is positive, in case of positive instrumentality and vice versa.
  • Expectancy: Expectancy is the belief that effort will lead to outcome and performance. Therefore, expectancy determines the strength of performance rather than the outcome. It is based on the self-efficacy. Employee with a high level of self-efficacy is more likely to believe that exerting effort will result in satisfactory performance. A high level of self-efficacy has high expectancy, while low level of self-efficacy has low expectancy. Persons suffering from low level of self-efficacy exhibit a phenomenon known as ‘imposter phenomenon’. This means that individuals are capable, as they appear to be. They are afraid of their inferiority, which may be revealed in public if they exert high effort. Imposters have low expectancy, as they believe that they lack the necessary competence. Expectancy is evaluated as a probability. It varies from 0 to 1. Zero is associated with complete uncertainty. As the performance is assured the expectancy rises and it will be high if the performance is certain. It is interesting to note that both internal and external environment influence expectancy.

The Level of Motivation

ValenceInstrumentalityExpectancyMotivation
HighHighHighStrong motivation
LowHighHighModerate motivation
HighLowHighStrong avoidance
LowLowHighModerate avoidance
HighHighLowModerate motivation
LowHighLowWeak avoidance
HighLowLowModerate avoidance
LowLowLowStrong avoidance

Vroom Expectancy Model

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